Apple

2013-01-01

About Apple

The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on small, deciduous trees. The tree originated in Western Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures, including Norse,Greek and Christian traditions. In 2010, the fruit’s genome was decoded, leading to new understandings of disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including in cooking, fresh eating and cider production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means.

About 69 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects have been found from eating apples; however, the seeds are slightly poisonous and two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit.

General Information

The tree is small and deciduous, reaching 5 to 12 m tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown.

The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5 to 12 cm long and 3–6 cm broad on a 2–5 cm petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Flowers are produced in spring simultaneous with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, 2.5–3.5 cm in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5–9 cm diameter. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds.

The tree originated from Central Asia, where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples resulting in range of desired characteristics. It should be noted however, that cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.

At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about two-fifths of this total. The United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production. Turkey, France, Italy and Iran are among the leading apple exporters.

Types of Apples

Red Delicious apples are easy to identify by the five distinct bumps on the blossom end of each fruit. This sweet, crisp, juicy, low-acid apple is tasty when eaten raw but is not a good choice for cooking.

Golden Delicious apples are full and round and have firm, crisp flesh that is sweet and juicy. This all-purpose apple is good for eating, cooking and baking.

Jonathan apples are generally small to medium in size and dark to bright red. Their flesh is yellowish-white, occasionally with red veins and they are crisp, tender, juicy, aromatic and moderately tart. Jonathan apples are another all-purpose apple for cooking, baking or fresh eating.

The Winesap apple is solid and has a deep red color. It tastes winey and tart and is good for cooking and eating but not especially satisfactory for baking.

Rome Beauty apples have a mild flavor that is best savored after cooking or baking.

Varieties

Baldwin AppleBallyfatten AppleBanana AppleBelmac AppleBloodhound AppleBraeburn Apple,Brown’s AppleBurlington AppleCameo AppleCarnation AppleCarpentin AppleCathead Apple,Celestia AppleChamplain AppleChinese AppleChristmas AppleCriterion AppleCustard Apple,Dabinett AppleEgg AppleElstar AppleEnterprise AppleFreyberg AppleFuji AppleGanges AppleGoldrush AppleHaas AppleJava AppleJonagold AppleJonathan AppleKill AppleLady AppleLodi AppleMeridian AppleMexican AppleMoira AppleMutsu AppleNovamac Apple,Richelieu AppleRome AppleRose AppleRouville AppleSpartan AppleSpy AppleSunset Apple,Wagener AppleWater AppleWealthy AppleWinesap AppleWoolly Apple Mint

More from Wikipedia

Apple

Powered by BSurprised WP-WikiBox Creative Commons License From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [+]

The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, Malus domestica of the rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on deciduous trees which are large if grown from seed, but small if grafted onto roots (rootstock). The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures, including Norse, Greek and Christian traditions. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, fresh eating and cider production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means.

About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects are thought to result from eating apples; however, two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit. [...]

Recipes for Apple

Pantry Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apples http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/apples/intro.html

Additional Images

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